Sector Documents‎ > ‎


This page contains sanitation documents including:
  1. Sanitation polices, guides
  2. Household Sanitation
  3. Institutional Sanitation
  4. Ecological Sanitation 
  5. Sanitation in emergencies
  6. Crossing cutting issues on sanitation

Crossing cutting issues:

East Africa Practitioners’ Workshop on Pro-Poor Urban Sanitation and Hygiene

In March 2011, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in collaboration with the Rwandan Ministry of Health convened over 60 practitioners and researchers from East Africa in a workshop that discussed the progress and challenges faced by the sector in the promotion of effective pro-poor
urban sanitation and hygiene (S&H). During this regional event supported by the German International Cooperation (GIZ), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), WaterAid and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), a total of 21 papers and photo essays on the topic of urban sanitation and hygiene were presented and discussed.

The rationale for undertaking this practitioners’ workshop on pro-poor urban S&H included three
overlapping reasons:

        1. It is increasingly recognised that S&H are priority areas for achieving sustainable

        2. Unplanned settlements face major challenges, hence the increasing recognition of the need
to address S&H for the urban poor

        3. Institutional complexity of urban S&H is great yet capacity is lacking

Download Recommendations from the East Africa Practitioners’ Workshop on Pro-Poor Urban Sanitation and Hygiene

Download the final Document

End Water Poverty Campaign – Sanitation and Water for all. A Programme of Action.

The End Water Poverty Campaign aims to change policy and practices according to the principles: of equity in the targeting of services so that the most marginalised groups such as the elderly, the poorest of the poor, women, and disabled people have access to services.  It advocates that the principal considerations in planning are given to reducing poverty and achieving sustainable services and water resources; and that key decision-makers hold themselves accountable to the poor through transparent and open planning processes.


WaterAid Uganda

January 2007

Uganda Sanitation and Hygiene 2005 Rapid Situation Assessment;

The Uganda Sanitation and Hygiene 2005 Rapid Situation Assessment was the first of the three stages toward the development of the Medium Term Operation Plan (MTOP).  The second stage being the development of a 10 year strategy for Improved Sanitation and Hygiene (ISH) and the third being the development of the MTOP.  The assessment aimed at among others, reviewing the sanitation content of present strategies and practices in the sector, presenting and if possible confirming sanitation coverage, analysing institutional arrangements for sanitation and hygiene promotion, and presenting financial expenditure on sanitation and hygiene promotion.  The document presents important data and information for sector policy makers, planners, and development partners.


EHD (MoH), PS (MoES) and DWD (MLWE) in collaboration with WSP,

October 2005,

46 pages.


National Sanitation week:  March 15th – 22nd 2007 and World Water Day. Activity plan;

Soroti Catholic Diocese Integrated Development Organisation (SOCADIDO) is a development arm of Soroti Catholic Diocese operating in Amuria, Bukedea, Kaberamaido, Katakwi, Kumi and Soroti districts.  Community Health is one of the key thematic areas being implemented. Activities under this are include water source construction, hygiene and sanitation promotion and HIV/AIDS. The document highlights the organisation’s planned activities for the days.  It provides ideas on what local governments and NGOs can do during the National Sanitation Week.


March 2007

3 pages

Report of Assessment of Gender mainstreaming Policy Implementation;

The gender mainstreaming study set out to assess the gender policy implementation as a key aspect of management of rural water and sanitation in Uganda.  The purpose being to assess whether the water and sanitation programme in the districts have effectively mainstreamed gender and to identify policy gaps. The study was carried out in 11 districts of Pader, Lira, Apac, Soroti, Mbale, Iganga, Kayunga, Nakasongola, Wakiso, Mbarara, and Kasese.  A methodology utilising both quantitative and qualitative techniques was applied.  The qualitative design helped in exploring the context within which gender mainstreaming in the management of water and sanitation activities was taking place and to identify gaps at the policy level which impede effective gender mainstreaming.  The report provides key information for district and subcounty water and sanitation programme planners and implementers.

Water Resource and Environment consultants,

October 2006,

55 pages.

District Implementation manual

The Water and Sanitation Sector District Implementation Manual provides a comprehensive overview of the workings of the sector for stakeholders operating at District local Government level. The manual sets out the policy and institutional environment, stakeholder roles and responsibilities and outlines the procedures to be followed. The manual is intended as a reference document for practicing water and sanitation professionals and in order to provide orientation to new players in the sector. The emphasis of the document is on rural water supply and sanitation service delivery through District local Governments. This is the first version of the manual to be issued. It will continue to be improved with subsequent versions.

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This manual has been produced as a practical guide for Supervisors of private sector Contractors involved in construction and test pumping of rural water supply boreholes. It is envisaged that the manual will be used by consultants under contract to District local Government to undertake supervision and  District staff who managing such contracts. As well as constituting a Supervisors guide, the manual also outlines various general aspects of borehole drilling, development and test pumping, and provides a summary of the broad principles of contract management.

Developed by the Ministry of Water and Environment. (DWD)

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Contract Management  Manual

The purpose of this Contract Management Plan (CMP) is to provide guidance to staff involved with the management and administration of the contract. Such

guidance should be a useful tool to help the District ensure that contractor and consultants comply with all terms and conditions that govern the Contract.

Developed by the Ministry of Water and Environment

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Citizen’s Action Survey Report.  Kawempe Division. Identifying the levels of Satisfaction, needs and Representation;

The Citizen’s Action Project survey report provides beneficiary  views on the different services provided in the parishes of Mulago III, Kyebando and Bwaise II with special reference to water and sanitation. The report highlights key sanitation problems in the area.  Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected through interviews, focus group discussions and observation.  A total of 12,000 households were involved in the study.  Results of the survey provide useful community feedback to division planners, service providers.  The results can also be used by the community as a platform to lobby demand and for services.

Community Integrated Development Initiatives (CIDI),

September 2006,

81 pages

Keys to functional sustainability in Community Water and Sanitation Programmes

The achievement of sustainability under Kigezi Diocese Water and Sanitation Programme (KDWSP) was recognised to be challenging and the focus of the sustainability study.  There were two main drivers for the study, a desire to understand what accounts for KDWSP’s apparent success in achieving functional sustainability and second, that the good practice developed over 20 years of trial and error, learning and success, community and institutional growth should be explained, interpreted and promoted to a wider audience. Quantitative methods were used to establish the extent of sustainability achieved.  Qualitative approaches were used to generate depth of understanding of issues, and relationships between factors that may account for the achievement of sustainability.  The study findings provide a good understanding of factors for sustainability to all development project planners and service providers


Dr. Carter R and Rwamwanja E

March 2006


Factors influencing equitable distribution of water supply and sanitation services in Uganda;

The existence of inequitable distribution of water and sanitation services is not in doubt.  The problem has already received recognition such that equity has been adopted as a key theme that should be monitored and measured every year as part of the sector’s performance review.  The study revealed that existing policy prescriptions, strategies, and guidelines are largely inclusive of equity provisions.  The problem however is more of policy translations and application at the district and lower levels. 


Equitable distribution of water and sanitation services largely begins with basics such as access to information and the initiative of local leaders.

Asingwire N and Muhangi D,

August 2005,

7 Pages.

Towards the MDG in Uganda: Retrospective Study of the Impact of Three Years of Budget Support Instrument on Rural Water;

Uganda is one of the pioneering countries in testing the new Bank lending instrument, the Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) a new Budget Support Instrument (BSI) which was launched in September 2000 by the Bank.  The BSI that puts the borrowing country in the “driver’s seat” was a new concept in performance contracting and a redefinition of the Bank’s relationship with a client government. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of the PRSC Budget Support Instrument that has been in operation since July 2001, and since 2002 under the 5-year Operational Plan for the Rural Water and Sanitation with the view of obtaining a feedback from key stakeholders.  The study was highly consultative in nature with both centre and district involvement.  Among others, the study examined capacity at local government levels, release of funds, local government planning, the private sector participation, and the poverty impacts of BSI.


Erich Baumann and Ephrem Asebe,

September 2004,

55 Pages

Development of a Strategy for Support to Private Sector Organisations Participating in Rural Water and Sanitation

Programmes in Uganda;

This report sets out the results of a study of the effectiveness of Uganda’s private sector in rural water and sanitation.  It arises from a long-term awareness of weaknesses in the private sector and its operating environment, and is an attempt to address some of the key issues revealed by the fieldwork and wider discussions.  The report presents an integrated strategy through which private sector effectiveness can be enhanced. The geographic scope of the study and the ensuing strategy is Uganda-wide. The study adopted a sampling approach,

Dr Richard Carter at al. for DFID,

August 2003,

180 pages.

Dr Richard Carter at al. for DFID,

August 2003,

180 pages.

International Study on the Sustainability of Changes in Hygiene Behaviour,

This report summarises the findings of the Uganda study on sustainability of hygiene behaviour changes undertaken from 2001 to 2003.  The study was part of a multi-national concerted effort involving five other countries including Ghana, India, Kenya, Nepal and Sri-Lanka, with funding from European union and coordination by the International Centre for Water and Sanitation Netherlands. (IRC). The study in Uganda was done in the three districts of Mukono, Mpigi Katakwi.  The study is of interest to all service providers and water and sanitation programme developers.

Mpalanyi J and Nahidu B,

June 2003,

38 Pages


Socio-economic and Willingness to Pay Survey: Luwero Town;

The Socio-economic and willingness to pay survey was carried out as part of the assignment of World Bank and Government of Uganda financed Small Towns Water and Sanitation Project (STWSP). Among others, the survey was to describe the existing sanitation facilities, conditions and problems, the type of improvement that could be made and their related costs and household willingness and ability to pay.  Four hundred thirty three households were interviewed.


Directorate of Water Development,

Dated not specified,

56 pages.

Stakeholders Consultative Workshop Report: Mubende Town Council        

The stakeholders Consultative Workshop was held at the initial stages of the Mid-Western Towns Water and Sanitation Project of which Mubende town was one of the beneficiary towns.  The objective of the workshop was to introduce the project and map a way forward for the project implementation process.  Among others the workshop discussed the existing water and sanitation situation with a view of highlighting problem area for the attention of the project.  The technical and political leaders of Mubende Town Council were in attendance.  The report is reflective of the sanitation-related problems many town council in Uganda face.


Directorate of Water Development,

May 2002,

11 pages

The workshop was conducted under the Mid-Western Towns Water and Sanitation Project with the objective of increasing community awareness on the project, identifying stakeholders for the Water supply and Sewerage Board and the key public relations issues for the Water and Sanitation Authority.  The Workshop was attended by officials from Hoima Town Council and representatives of the beneficiary community.

Baseline study on Sanitation, Hygiene and Safe water use in Kiboga District;

The baseline study was conducted in 7 counties of Kiboga District, the objective being to ascertain safe water coverage and the levels of sanitation and hygiene practices with a women and children as special interest groups.  The study used participatory tools to generate data.  The reports provided baseline data for district planning and may be used for measuring progress in the delivery of water and sanitation services in the district.


NETWAS Uganda,

November 2001,

37 pages.

Rural and Urban Water and Sanitation, Progress and emerging issues:  Issue Paper No. 2;

The issue paper was presented at the Government of Uganda/Donor review of the water and sanitation sector of September 2001.  The Objective of the paper was twofold, i, to present the status of the water sector reform agenda and summary of the emerging reform proposals that he government would adopt and implement for the rural, and urban sub-sectors, and ii, to seek feedback on the proposals and support for the implementation of the reform proposals.

Directorate of Water Development,

September 2001,

19 pages.

Uganda: Water Sector Scoping Study: Stage 2.

The study was conducted on behalf of the Project Coordination Office, Department for International Development (DFID).  The Government of Uganda had set ambitious targets of increasing water and sanitation coverage to 55% and 60% coverage respectively.  In order to contribute towards improved livelihood of the poor.  The aim of the study was to identify a water and Sanitation Programme for potential DFID funding.  While Stage 1 focused on institutional arrangements, Stage 2 aimed at prioritising the most needy of the seven districts proposed by government and to develop a programme.  Field visits were carried out in seven districts  (Apac, Katakwi, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masindi, and Soroti) and data collected through meetings and FGDs with a cross section of key stakeholders.  The report presents profiles of the seven districts visited and a concept note that proposes the strategy and implementation arrangements for a rural water hygiene and sanitation programme.

John Collett

July 1998

92 pages

Report on the Water and Environmental Sanitation programme;


This is a brief report presented by the then Chairperson LC V Mubende district to the 17th Interministerial Steering Committee of the Rural Water Sector, held in Mubende October 1998.  The report presented an overview of the water and sanitation situation in Mubende, achievements, and constraints under the WES Programme.

Col. Kasirye Gwanga,

October 1998,

13 pages.



National Sanitation Forum;

Under the leadership of the Ministry of Health, an inter-ministerial task force was set up to map out strategies for raising the profile of sanitation in Uganda which had been on the decline over the previous two decades.  A sanitation Forum was held at which the leadership of 45 districts in Uganda together with members of parliament, permanent secretaries, directors and commissioners of all relevant ministries, private sector, NGOs among others attended (attendance was over 350 persons).  The overall goal of the forum was to raise the profile of sanitation in Uganda and prepare grounds for the National Accelerated Sanitation Improvement Programme. A number of papers were presented for discussion.  The forum ended with the signing of the 10 point Kampala Declaration on Sanitation (KDS)

Ministry of Health,

October 1997,

5 pages.

Exploring the Potential of Sanitation as a Business for Private Water Operators in the Towns of Mityana and Kayunga

Urban sanitation in Uganda is governed by the Public Health Act 2000, which is complemented by the Environmental Health Policy of 2005. According to the National Development Plan (2010-2015), the overall objective of the Government of Uganda (GoU) for sanitation in urban areas is 100% hygienic sanitation facilities in the urban population by the year 2015.
Previous studies have identified key challenges in the sanitation sector in small towns in Uganda as follows: Low volumes of wastewater generated which do not warrant construction of sewer systems in the near future; poor state of toilets and septic tanks; lack of access to cesspool services; lack of facilities for faecal sludge disposal; high emptying costs beyond the affordability of most low income households; pollution of the environment as a result of unsafe disposal practices. On the other hand, efficiency gains have been realized in the water sector in the small towns through private sector involvement. Water services are run more efficiently and there is a big drive to see similar gains fostered in the sanitation sector. Currently, over 20 private operators are managing water services in over 80 urban centres. Until recently, their mandate was management of water services in the towns. However, this has been expanded to also include management of sanitation services.
Objective of the assignment
The overall objective of this assignment, conducted from 6th December 2010 to 15th April 2011, was to explore the sanitation business potential (i.e. pit emptying as well as the management/operation of public toilets) and support a structured process of establishing co-operation between the pit emptier and households plus the Urban Authorities of Kayunga and Mityana. This assignment also builds upon some of the recommendations of the ISH strategy for small towns.
The assignment was conducted in four stages. First, a review of relevant literature in the water and sanitation sector in Uganda was undertaken. Next, discussions were held with key stakeholders in the sanitation business who include the Ministry of Water & Environment - Urban Water and Sewerage Department; RUWASS/GIZ Technical Advisors, Officials from the Urban Authorities; Town Clerks, Town Engineers, Health Inspectors, Water Board Chairpersons, private water operators and the Private Emptiers Association. These discussions were aimed at capturing their views on the idea of involving private water operators in the sanitation business. Furthermore, field work was conducted, which included visits to the different sanitation facilities in the two towns and administering questionnaires to households and institutions. Lastly, the data
Exploring the potential of Sanitation as a business for water operators in Uganda viii
was analysed and different working documents and reports were developed to operationalise the initiative. The assignment also included monitoring of the initial implementation of the initiatives and capturing lessons to guide the future up scaling process to other small towns..

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