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Ecological Sanitation

A Review of Ecological Sanitation Technologies in East and Southern Africa.

Many Governments and agencies in Africa are exploring the role of Ecological Sanitation (ecosan), within their current programmes for improving household environmental sanitation and hygiene.  There are strong convincing environmental and economic reasons for promoting ecosan in the developing world, but so far Africa acceptance of the technology has been limited.  The paper reviews experience in several countries in East and Southern Africa, Uganda inclusive.  The objective is to better understand why the take-up of ecosan has been limited in order to inform future improvements in the programme.  The review is mostly based on existing reports and sets out to identify as many successful programmes as possible in target countries in order to learn from their experiences.  The Uganda experience has been highlighted in the abstract.

Barry Jackson,

August 2004.

17 pages

School Ecological Sanitation: Information for District leaders, Contractors, and Teachers

As technical and socio-economic conditions vary from area to area, (shortage of land, different geological landscapes, ever growing school enrolment), it has been recognised that there is need for promotion of other design for excreta disposal, and not only the conventional pit latrine.  In addition, conventional pit latrines cause problems of ground water pollution thus threatening drinking water supply.  Ecological sanitation has been identified as one of the solutions to many of the above problems.  When successfully implemented, ecosan can cut down the need to continuously invest in latrine structure as they get filled up.  This will in the long run save money that can be used for other development activities for children.  The purpose of this booklet is to help districts and schools adopt ecological sanitation as a solution to the many sanitation challenges at schools and within the wider community.



July 2002

12 pages

Workshop for Ecosan and Development of Guidelines for Latrine Technology for Schools:

The workshop was organised to develop guidelines for implementation of ecosan.  Inspite of its benefits, the ecosan toilet promotion had not received support from donors largely because of the negative peoples’ attitudes.  The concept and technology had not been properly internalised due to social and culture barriers.  The objectives of the workshop therefore, were to share experience on ecosan, and draw a strategy of how address the promotion challenges.  A number of presentations were made to share various project experiences.


21-27 October 2001,

Created Crane Jinja: Workshop Report

Growing up at school: A guide to menstrual management for school girls

This booklet has been written to help school girls manage the critical period when they enter adolescence between the ages of 10 and 14.

Adolescence is the time during which boys and girls grow from childhood into adulthood and changes take place in their bodies. During this period, known as puberty, menstruation starts in girls.

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Ecological sanitation coverage and factors affecting its uptake in Kabale municipality, western Uganda.
Ecological sanitation (Ecosan) is a relatively new concept being promoted in many developing countries to improve sanitation coverage and recycle nutrients in excreta for agricultural production. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Kabale municipality, western Uganda to determine the coverage of Ecosan and
factors affecting its uptake. A total of 806 respondents were interviewed, randomly selected from 32 of 77 (42%) villages in Kabale municipality. We held
six focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews. Ecosan coverage was found to be 20% (163/806). The factors that were significantly associated with
Ecosan coverage included education, occupation, religion and age. Our study found a relatively high Ecosan coverage in Kabale municipality compared to the
targeted national coverage of 15% by 2018. Policy-makers and organizations in Ecosan development ought to take into consideration the influence of education and socio-economic factors for successful uptake of ecological sanitation.

Innocent K. Tumwebaze, Christopher G. Orach, Joan K. Nakayaga, Charles Karamagi, Christoph Luethi & Charles Niwagaba (2011): Ecological sanitation coverage and factors affecting its uptake in Kabale municipality, western Uganda, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 21:4, 294-305
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